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Environment Control

    Command                     Description
    cd d                         Change to directory d
    mkdir d                      Create new directory d
    rmdir d                      Remove directory d
    mv f1 [f2...] d              Move file f to directory d
    mv d1 d2                     Rename directory d1 as d2
    passwd                       Change password
    alias name1 name2            Create command alias (csh/tcsh)
    alias name1="name2"          Create command alias (ksh/bash)
    unalias name1[na2...]        Remove command alias na
    ssh nd                       Login securely to remote node
    exit                         End terminal session
    setenv name v               Set env var to value v (csh/tcsh)
    export name="v"              set environment variable to value v (ksh/bash)

Output, Communication, & Help

    Command                     Description
    lpr -P printer f            
    lp -d printer f              Output file f to line printer
    script  [f]                  Save terminal session to f
    exit                         Stop saving terminal session
    mailx username               Send mail to user
    man name                     Unix manual entry for name

Process Control

    Command                     Description
    CTRL/c *                     Interrupt processes
    CTRL/s *                     Stop screen scrolling
    CTRL/q *                     Resume screen output
    sleep n                      Sleep for n seconds
    jobs                         Print list of jobs
    kill %                       Kill job n
    ps                           Print process status stats
    kill  -9 n                   Remove process n
    CTRL/z *                     Suspend current process
    stop  %n                     Suspend background job n
    cmmd&                        Run cmmd in background
    bg  [%n]                     Resume background job n
    fg  [%n]                     Resume foreground job n
    exit                         Exit from shell

Environment Status

    Command                     Description
    ls  [d]  [f...]              List files in directory
    ls -1  [f...]                List files in detail
    alias  [name]                Display command aliases
    printenv  [name]             Print environment values
    quota                        Display disk quota
    date                         Print date & time
    who                          List logged in users
    whoami                       Display current user
    finger  [username]           Output user information
    chfn                         Change finger information
    pwd                          Print working directory
    history                      Display recent commands
    ! n                          Submit recent command n

File Manipulation

    Command                     Description
    vi  [f]                      Vi fullscreen editor
    emacs  [f]                   Emacs fullscreen editor
    ed  [f]                      Text editor
    wc  f                        Line, word, & char count
    cat  f                       List contents of file
    more  f                      List file contents by screen
    cat f1 f2 >f3                Concatenates f1 & f2 into f3
    chmod mode f                 Change protection mode of f
    cmp f1 f2                    Compare two files
    cp f1 f2                     Copy file f1 into f2
    sort f                       Alphabetically sort f
    split  [-n]  f               Split f into n-line pieces
    mv f1  f2                    Rename file f1 as f2
    rm f                         Delete (remove) file f
    grep 'ptn'  f                Outputs lines that match ptn
    diff f1 f2                   Lists file differences
    head f                       Output beginning of f
    tail f                       Output end of f


    Command                     Description
    cc  [-o f1]  f2              C compiler
    lint f                       Check C code for errors
    f77  [-o f1] f2              Fortran77 compiler
    pc  [-o f1]  f2              Pascal compiler

Working with NFS files

Files saved on the UITS central Unix computers Steel, the Parallel PC cluster, Solar/Lunar, and the Research SP are stored on the Network File Server (NFS). That means that your files are really on one disk, in directories named for the central Unix hosts on which you have accounts.

No matter which of these computers you are logged into, you can get to your files on any of the others. Here are the commands to use to get to any system directory from any other system:

  cd /N/u/username/PPPC/
  cd /N/u/username/Cobalt/
  cd /N/u/username/Solar/
  cd /N/u/username/Steel/
  cd /n/u/username/SP/

Be sure you use the capitalization just as you see above, and substitute your own username for "username".

For example, if Jessica Rabbit is logged into her account on Steel, and wants to get a file on her SP account, she would enter:

  cd /N/u/jrabbit/SP/

Now when she lists her files, she'll see her SP files, even though she's actually logged into Steel.

You can use the ordinary Unix commands to move files, copy files, or make symbolic links between files. For example, if Jessica Rabbit wanted to move "file1" from her Steel directory to her SP directory, she would enter:

  mv -i /N/u/jrabbit/Steel/file1 /N/u/jrabbit/SP/

This shared file system means that you can access, for example, your SP files even when you are logged into Steel, and vice versa. However, if you are logged into the SP, you can only use the software installed on SP -- only users' directories are linked together, not system directories.

Abbreviations used in this document

    CTRL/x       hold down control key and press x
    d            directory
    env          environment
    f            filename
    n            number
    nd           computer node
    prtr         printer
    ptn          pattern
    var          variable
    [y/n]        yes or no
    []          optional arg
    ...         list
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